Here’s a list of the congenital anomalies that affect the GIT. After that, I’ll move on to discuss their symptoms, the differential diagnosis along with their hallmark findings and the symptoms behind each.
1. Oral Cavity:
- Cleft Palate,
- Swollen, protruberant tongue (as in congenital hypothyroidism, etc).
- Anomalies affecting the overall appearance of the mouth (such as Treacher-Collins syndrome, craniofacial dystocia, etc).
2. Pharynx & Oesophagus:
- Tracheo-eosophageal fistula
- Plugs and webs
- Pyloric Stenosis
- Exomphalos and Gastrochisis
- Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia
4. Small Intestine:
- 5.Large Intestine:Malrotation
- Duodenal atresia
- Duodenal stenosis
- Meckel’s diverticulum
- Duplications of the GIT
- Other remnants of the omphalomesenteric duct
- Hirchsprung Disease
- Colonic atresia
- Colonic Stenosis
- Functional immaturity of the colon
- Fixation and rotation anomalies(the most important ones being small left colon syndrome and meconium plug syndrome).
- Intestinal Duplication
- Intestinal webs
- Anorectal Anomalies (imperforate anus, etc)
It should be kept in mind that some conditions such as Down’s syndrome, etc are also accompanied by duodenal atresia, and other gastrointestinal malformations.
Before you read the next post, do check out this overview. Pretty good info given in a short text.